Patterns of Cooperative Interaction - Related Papers

Applying Patterns of Cooperative Interaction To Work (Re)Design: E-Government and Planning - David Martin, Mark Rouncefield and Ian Sommerville

This paper presents patterns of cooperative interaction derived from ethnographic studies of cooperative work as devices for generalisation, re-use and design. These patterns consist of examples of similar social and interactional phenomena found in different studies that serve as resources for defining and envisaging design concepts, and potential work process and technical solutions. We outline new pattern examples and demonstrate their use in application to a complex setting, e-government in local government planning.

Martin, D., Rouncefield, M. and Sommerville, I. (2002). Applying patterns of interaction to work (re)design: e-government and planning. Proc. CHI'2002. 235-42, ACM Press.

Applying Patterns of Cooperative Interaction To Work (Re)Design: E-Government and Planning - David Martin, Mark Rouncefield and Ian Sommerville

Powerpoint Presentation

Patterns of Cooperative Interaction: Linking Ethnomethodology and Design - David Martin and Ian Sommerville

Patterns of Cooperative Interaction are regularities in the organisation of work, activity, and interaction amongst participants, and with, through and around artefacts. These patterns are organised around a framework and are inspired by how such regularities are highlighted in ethnomethodologically-informed ethnographic studies of work and technology. They comprise a high level description and two or more comparable examples drawn from specific studies. Our contention is that these patterns form a useful resource for re-using findings from previous field studies, for enabling analysis and considering design in new settings. Previous work on the relationship between ethnomethodology and design has been concerned primarily in providing presentation frameworks and mechanisms, practical advice, schematisations of the ethnomethodologist's role, different possibilities of input at different stages in development, and various conceptualisations of the relationship between study and design. In contrast, this paper seeks to firstly discuss the position of patterns relative to emergent major topics of interest of these studies. Subsequently it seeks to describe the case for the collection of patterns based on findings, their comparison across studies and their general implications for design problems, rather than the concerns of practical and methodological interest outlined in the other work. Special attention is paid to our evaluations and to how they inform how the patterns collection may be read, used and contributed to, as well as to reflections on the composition of the collection as it has emerged. The paper finishes, firstly, with a discussion of how our work relates to other work on patterns, before some closing comments are made on the role of our patterns and ethnomethodology in systems design.

Martin D. and Sommerville, I. (2004). Patterns of cooperative interaction: Linking ethnomethodology and design. ACM Trans. on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 11 (1), 58-89.7

Informing the Requirements Process with Patterns of Cooperative Interaction
- Ian Sommerville, David Martin and Mark Rouncefield

The need to understand the social context within which work to be supported by computer-based systems takes place is broadly recognised within the RE community. Ethnographic studies have been used in particular to inform the requirements process from a social perspective. To make this accessible to requirements engineers, work in this area has focused on how to integrate and communicate ethnographic findings on a per project basis but scant attention has been paid to how findings from individual studies may be generalised and re-used for the purposes of RE in new settings. This paper is intended to introduce our resource of Patterns of Cooperative Interaction to the RE community. These patterns specifically compare and contrast a variety of ethnographic findings, discuss their relevance to design and provide an introduction to the analytic sensibilities of such studies. We discuss how we developed patterns of interaction from a corpus of ethnographic studies, illustrate a selection of these patterns and suggest how the patterns collection can be used by requirements engineers as a means of highlighting potential social issues that are or relevance to the system requirements and as a means of generating requirements that support social interaction.

Sommerville, I., Martin, D. and Rouncefield, M. (2003). Informing the Requirements Process with Patterns of Cooperative Interaction. Invited paper. International Arab J. of Information Technology, 1 (1), July 2003.

Finding Patterns In The Fieldwork - David Martin, Tom Rodden, Mark Rouncefield, Ian Sommerville, Stephen Viller

This paper considers the potential of using patterns of cooperative interaction to support the development of general design principles drawn from a range of work settings. It reports on the development of patterns from ethonographic studies in a number of work environments. Our particular interest is in the possibilities surrounding the use of patterns as a means of organising, presenting and representing this growing corpus of ethnographic material and in the contribution this might make to CSCW design. In this paper we focus on outlining some of our experiences and difficulties in developing patterns from ethnographic studies and present some initital ideas towards the development of a pattern language to exploit the experience gained from a decade of field studies.

Martin D., Rodden T., Rouncefield M., Sommerville I. and Viller S. (2001). Finding Patterns in the Fieldwork. Proc. ECSCW’01, Bonn, Kluwer, 39-58.

Leadership Refrains: Patterns of Leadership
- Simon Kelly, Marian Iszatt White, Dave Martin and Mark Rouncefield

This article considers issues of leadership and leadership development by reflecting on the notion of the refrain as pattern. Drawing on our research of lead- ership within UK further education (FE) we examine how tracing ‘patterns of leadership’ can provide an insight into the practical accomplishment of leadership in FE as everyday ‘ordinary’ work. In an era of increased change and uncertainty about the character of leadership within the sector, we use our ethnographic data and interdisciplinary backgrounds to consider leadership development as essentially a design problem through adopting and adapting the notion of patterns that emerge in the architectural work of Christopher Alexander and the organizational studies of Tom Erickson. In doing so we point to the comforting effect of both the refrain and the pattern to repeat, return, renew, react, refine, reconstruct and resolve. We conclude by suggesting some of the ways in which the documenting and describing of such patterns of leadership can be used as ‘teachable moments’ for the design and deployment of programmes of leadership development and training.

Rouncefield, M., Martin, D., Iszatt White, M. and Kelly, S. (2006). Leadership refrains: patterns of leadership. Leadership, 2 (2). pp. 181-201.